Effective joint regeneration using regenerating treatments and surgery

Contusion (bruise)

Contusion is a direct soft tissue injury, involving muscles, tendons or ligaments. The external force crushes the cells damaging the nerve fibres and blood vessels. As a result, the fluid may accumulate under the skin (subcutaneous exudate) and the tissue may swell (oedema). The force of trauma is not strong enough to break the skin, tendons, muscles or bones. Contusions are the most common among manual labourers, professional athletes or individuals keen on sports.

Signs and symptoms

Local pain (painful to touch and press), increased skin temperature, redness, oedema (swelling). Pain is usually present at palpation (physical examination).


The treatment is usually conservative, soft tissue injury resolves spontaneously within 7-10 days. Bruises change colour from red and purple to yellow, as the extravasated blood is slowly absorbed in the body.

Using RICEMM protocol will accelerate recovery and alleviate pain. Painkillers may be helpful. Additionally, topical formulations (ointments or gels) containing heparin, arnica or horse chestnut extracts can be used to relieve bruises.

When swelling resolves, hot compresses can be used, which speed up tissue regeneration.

However, if a bruise is large, the swelling persists and the pain increases or is intolerable, you should seek medical advice.