Effective joint regeneration using regenerating treatments and surgery


Rupture means a complete tear/ detachment of a tendon, muscle or ligament.

Signs and symptoms

pain, swelling, an indentation may be visible along the tendon or muscle, acute joint instability if a ligament is affected, no active movement of a joint generated by the affected muscle or tendon, muscle spasm, subcutaneous haemorrhage (blood accumulation under the skin). An experienced physician may feel a rupture of a muscle or tendon on palpation (examination by touch).


The first step is to confirm the diagnosis. Ultrasound is a diagnostic method of choice, unless the injury affects deeply located ligaments, e.g. ACL or PCL. Also, in all inconclusive cases, after physical examination and an ultrasound scan, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should be performed.

A ruptured structure – muscle, tendon or ligament – needs to be sutured back in place or repaired, which means that surgery will be required.  If you are not bothered by your dysfunction, you may choose not to have surgery. However, it is important to know that a muscle or tendon dysfunction leads to muscle atrophy, causing limb asymmetry and, in turn, decreased muscle strength and inability to perform a given movement generated by the affected muscle or tendon the way you used to in the past. Ligament rupture, on the other hand, causes joint instability that is a joint’s slipping out of place, relative uncertainty when moving that joint when you walk (if it’s your leg) or lifting heavier items (if your arm or hand is affected). Chronic instability leads to premature joint degeneration, which makes patients give up sports they were once keen on. When treating ruptures, regenerative treatments may be helpful, as they prevent premature joint degeneration, significantly accelerate healing after performed surgery and shorten the recovery time.